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In the early 1900s, Okemah, Oklahoma, was filled with racial tensions that defined much of that era for Black people living in the United States. Laura Nelson, born around 1883, married Austin Nelson in 1896, and they had two children, L.D. and Carrie. The family lived a humble life on their small farm, trying to make ends meet despite the oppressive conditions imposed on Black people during that time.

On May 1, 1911, Sheriff George Loney received a complaint about a stolen cow from a local white farmer named Claude Littrell. Littrell claimed that the cow had been stolen and suspected the Nelson family. Sheriff Loney obtained a search warrant from Justice of the Peace A.W. Jenkins and assembled a posse, including Littrell, neighbor Oscar Lane, and Constable Cliff Martin, to execute the warrant.


They arrived at the Nelson farm around 9:00 PM on May 2, 1911. The family was inside their modest home when they heard the commotion outside. As the posse began their search, they discovered meat, allegedly from the stolen cow, in the barn. The situation escalated quickly. Thirteen-year-old L.D. grabbed a weapon to defend his family, and Laura Nelson also armed herself.

A firefight erupted. During the chaos, Constable Martin was grazed in the leg, and Sheriff Loney was fatally struck. Fearing for their lives, the Nelsons fled to a relative’s home but were soon arrested. Laura, L.D., and even the two-year-old Carrie were taken to jail.

The community was in uproar over the death of Sheriff Loney, and the white populace demanded swift justice. Newspapers began printing sensationalized stories, depicting Laura as a vicious woman and L.D. as a violent youth. The pressure to convict the Nelsons was immense, despite doubts about the evidence.


On May 24, 1911, a mob of over 40 white men stormed the jail where the Nelsons were being held. They dragged Laura and L.D. from their cells, ignoring their pleas for mercy. The mob took them to a bridge over the Canadian River, near a Black neighborhood. There, the men subjected Laura to unspeakable violations before hanging her and L.D. from the bridge. Some reports suggest that baby Carrie was found drowned in the river, though this remains unconfirmed.


The next morning, the bodies of Laura and L.D. were discovered by a young Black boy. Hundreds of white townspeople flocked to the scene, some posing for photographs with the lynched bodies. These images were later turned into postcards and sold as souvenirs, a grotesque reminder of the racial violence that plagued the South.

The brutal lynching of Laura Nelson and her son in 1911 can be understood within the context of post-Civil War America. Despite the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments aiming to abolish slavery and ensure rights for Black people, Southern resistance persisted. By 1877, the federal government withdrew support, allowing Southern states to enforce Jim Crow laws, which institutionalized racial segregation and disenfranchisement.

The Supreme Court weakened Black rights further with rulings like the 1883 Civil Rights Cases, which limited the 14th Amendment’s protections to state actions, not private discrimination. This legal environment fostered impunity for racial violence, directly contributing to the Nelson family’s tragic fate. Understanding this context highlights how systemic failures and judicial decisions created an atmosphere where racial violence was rampant and unpunished, exemplified by the horrific events that befell Laura Nelson and her son.


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